Canadian Poultry

Canadian Poultry
Ontario farm tire deflation technology ready to go global

Ontario farm tire deflation technology ready to go global

An automatic air inflation deflation system (AAID) developed by a southwestern Ontario hog farmer is ready to go global.

TFC Celebrates 40 Years

TFC Celebrates 40 Years

The turkey farmers of canada celebrated 40 years in 2014

Think Like a Bird

Think Like a Bird

The public wants to know that birds are being well kept and the poultry industry wants the same, but what does the bird want?

2014 Canadian Poultry Sustainability award winners announced

2014 Canadian Poultry Sustainability award winners announced

The 2014 Canadian Poultry Sustainabilty Award winners are Levi Hofer of New York Colony and the Brock Family of Four Corners Poultry Ltd.

Three young farmers awarded look at Aviagen's operations

Three young farmers awarded look at Aviagen's operations

Aviagen recently hosted three Canadian broiler hatching egg producers at its world headquarters in Huntsville, Alabama.

video
Honey Bee AirFLEX...
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North American Manure Expo comes to Canada...
For the first time ever, the North American Manure Expo is being hosted within a Canadian province. The annual show is being held August 20 and 21, 2013, at the University of Guelph’s Arkell Research Station, located near Guelph, Ontario. So, what's a Manure Expo and why should you attend? This video will provide all the dirt.
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Expert Dr. Susan Watkins discusses Water Sanitatio...
Expert Dr. Susan Watkins discusses Water Sanitation
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The population explosion...
With the world's population increasing exponentially and farmland staying the same, BASF took to the streets to ask consumers if this trend is sustainable.

Health

The effect of litter material, ventilation and humidity, water line management, bird health, and nutrition on foot pad dermatitis needs to be well understood by producers to minimize the risk of this disease developing within their flock of turkeys Foot Pad Dermatitis in Turkeys

  Foot pad dermatitis is a condition characterized by lesions on the foot pad of turkeys, which, when severe, lead to the erosion of the skin layers and cause pain when weight is put on the foot.  Scoring scales used at the processing plant to determine the severity of the lesions can be used as an indication of welfare of a flock, due to the pain associated with this condition, making it a management aspect which should be monitored very closely.  Additionally, the pain caused by foot pad dermatitis leads to decreased mobility which may cause a decrease in eating and drinking, as it is too painful to walk to the feed and water lines.  Many factors, including management and nutrition, may contribute to the development and severity of foot pad dermatitis and can be manipulated to reduce the incidence of foot pad dermatitis in a flock.  It is important to be aware of all factors contributing to foot pad dermatitis and manage the barn to ensure these risk factors are being minimized before any lesions appear on the foot pad of the bird. LITTER MATERIALThe moisture of the litter used for bedding in a turkey barn is the most important contributor to foot pad dermatitis in turkey flocks.  This is because increased litter moisture facilitates the softening of the foot pad, making it more susceptible to bacterial invasion.  This bacterial invasion leads to the production of a lesion on the foot pad.  In general, other factors involved in the development of foot pad dermatitis are simply related to the way in which they contribute to increased litter moisture.  This includes the litter material being used.  Understanding the ability of that material to hold water and keep it away from the foot pad of the turkey, thereby decreasing the moisture of the litter in contact with the foot pad, is important as making the decision on litter material and depth is an important aspect of barn management.  The litter material may also induce the development of a lesion based on the physical properties of the material, as an abrasive material may cause irritation to the foot pad.   VENTILATION AND HUMIDITYThe barn environment is influenced by a variety of management factors including humidity, ventilation, and temperature.  Ensuring the humidity is low enough to reduce the litter moisture helps prevent the development of foot pad dermatitis in the turkeys, while still keeping the humidity high enough to prevent the barn from become dusty.  Managing ventilation in such a way that relative humidity levels are maintained between 50 and 70 per cent is a key component of managing to reduce the incidence of foot pad dermatitis in the flock.  This is particularly difficult in the winter, as adding heat is expensive which may cause a producer to decrease ventilation rates to save on heating costs.  Lowering the ventilation in the winter allows for the buildup of moisture within the barn and promotes wet litter, making the flock more susceptible to the development of foot pad dermatitis.  A too high ventilation rate can also have negative effects as this will increase the heating cost to unnecessarily high levels during the winter months. Higher stocking density will put more pressure on litter management due to increased excreta output per square metre. Finding the balance in ventilation that allows for a sufficient quantity of fresh air and removal of moisture from the barn, while keeping heating costs as low as possible, is required to manage the barn and the flock to their potential.   WATER LINE MANAGEMENTThe management of the water lines in the barn can contribute to the development of foot pad dermatitis in a turkey flock by contributing to increased litter moisture.  Regularly checking water lines for leaks, ensuring they are set to the correct pressure, and maintaining water sanitation in the barn helps to minimize water spillage.  Additionally, ensuring the water lines are at the right height such that the turkeys are not stretching or bending down to drink decreases the amount of water being wasted during drinking and contributes to keeping the litter dry. BIRD HEALTHBird health plays a very important role in the development of foot pad dermatitis.  Disease challenges, such as coccidiosis and enteritis, are associated with malabsorption in the gut, leading to loose excreta and increased litter moisture.  Watery, foamy droppings are often the first indication of a disease challenge. Enteric diseases lead to a decrease in feed and water intake, which results in marginal intake of nutrients critical to health, including energy, amino acids, vitamins and trace minerals. Unless quickly addressed, litter conditions will deteriorate and birds will develop dirty feathering and lethargy.  The combination of these factors results in impaired immune response, increasing the turkey’s susceptibility to foot pad dermatitis. Closely monitoring flock health and mortality for the duration of the growing period is very important and should be done in consultation with your flock veterinarian. NUTRITIONComponents of the ingredients provided in the feed can contribute to foot pad dermatitis.  Ingredients containing difficult to digest carbohydrates, such as soybean meal, corn distillers grains with solubles, barley and wheat, are associated with sticky droppings due to their ability to retain water in the excreta.  These sticky droppings are concerning as they increase the contact time of the foot pad with the excreta, as well as increasing the water contained in the excreta.  This challenge can be overcome with enzyme supplementation in the diet.  Another nutritional component is the quality and balance of protein being supplied in the diet.  A diet that is poorly balanced in terms of protein leads to increased excretion of water into the litter, contributing to an increase in litter moisture.  The presence of mycotoxins in the feed can also contribute to the development of foot pad dermatitis. The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), has been shown to disrupt the intestinal mucosa structure, leading to impaired nutrient absorption and contributing to the development of malabsorption and increased excreta moisture. The risk from mycotoxins can be mitigated by stringent screening of feedstuffs and nutritional support to minimize their negative effects. Another dietary factor is sodium intake from both feed and water as it impacts electrolyte balance. Sodium intake in excess of nutritional requirements can contribute to the development of foot pad dermatitis through increased excreta moisture. Maintaining moderate, but adequate, levels of sodium in the diet, with adjustment for the contribution from drinking water, is a necessary step in foot pad dermatitis prevention.  Proper nutrition and feed formulation can address many of the factors involved with foot pad health in turkeys. Developing a nutritional strategy to prevent the development of foot pad dermatitis in your flock should be done in consultation with your flock nutritionist. CONCLUSIONThe effect of litter material, ventilation and humidity, water line management, bird health, and nutrition on foot pad dermatitis needs to be well understood by producers to minimize the risk of this disease developing within their flock of turkeys.  Understanding how these factors work both independently, as well as the way they interact, to induce and increase severity of foot pad dermatitis in a turkey flock gives producers the opportunity to manage their barns to reduce the risk factors present to the turkeys, from day-old poults through to market age.  Barn and flock management that focuses on the reduction of foot pad dermatitis risk factors, particularly by monitoring litter moisture, will contribute significantly to producing a high performing, healthy flock of turkeys.      

Production

The effect of litter material, ventilation and humidity, water line management, bird health, and nutrition on foot pad dermatitis needs to be well understood by producers to minimize the risk of this disease developing within their flock of turkeys Foot Pad Dermatitis in Turkeys

  Foot pad dermatitis is a condition characterized by lesions on the foot pad of turkeys, which, when severe, lead to the erosion of the skin layers and cause pain when weight is put on the foot.  Scoring scales used at the processing plant to determine the severity of the lesions can be used as an indication of welfare of a flock, due to the pain associated with this condition, making it a management aspect which should be monitored very closely.  Additionally, the pain caused by foot pad dermatitis leads to decreased mobility which may cause a decrease in eating and drinking, as it is too painful to walk to the feed and water lines.  Many factors, including management and nutrition, may contribute to the development and severity of foot pad dermatitis and can be manipulated to reduce the incidence of foot pad dermatitis in a flock.  It is important to be aware of all factors contributing to foot pad dermatitis and manage the barn to ensure these risk factors are being minimized before any lesions appear on the foot pad of the bird. LITTER MATERIALThe moisture of the litter used for bedding in a turkey barn is the most important contributor to foot pad dermatitis in turkey flocks.  This is because increased litter moisture facilitates the softening of the foot pad, making it more susceptible to bacterial invasion.  This bacterial invasion leads to the production of a lesion on the foot pad.  In general, other factors involved in the development of foot pad dermatitis are simply related to the way in which they contribute to increased litter moisture.  This includes the litter material being used.  Understanding the ability of that material to hold water and keep it away from the foot pad of the turkey, thereby decreasing the moisture of the litter in contact with the foot pad, is important as making the decision on litter material and depth is an important aspect of barn management.  The litter material may also induce the development of a lesion based on the physical properties of the material, as an abrasive material may cause irritation to the foot pad.   VENTILATION AND HUMIDITYThe barn environment is influenced by a variety of management factors including humidity, ventilation, and temperature.  Ensuring the humidity is low enough to reduce the litter moisture helps prevent the development of foot pad dermatitis in the turkeys, while still keeping the humidity high enough to prevent the barn from become dusty.  Managing ventilation in such a way that relative humidity levels are maintained between 50 and 70 per cent is a key component of managing to reduce the incidence of foot pad dermatitis in the flock.  This is particularly difficult in the winter, as adding heat is expensive which may cause a producer to decrease ventilation rates to save on heating costs.  Lowering the ventilation in the winter allows for the buildup of moisture within the barn and promotes wet litter, making the flock more susceptible to the development of foot pad dermatitis.  A too high ventilation rate can also have negative effects as this will increase the heating cost to unnecessarily high levels during the winter months. Higher stocking density will put more pressure on litter management due to increased excreta output per square metre. Finding the balance in ventilation that allows for a sufficient quantity of fresh air and removal of moisture from the barn, while keeping heating costs as low as possible, is required to manage the barn and the flock to their potential.   WATER LINE MANAGEMENTThe management of the water lines in the barn can contribute to the development of foot pad dermatitis in a turkey flock by contributing to increased litter moisture.  Regularly checking water lines for leaks, ensuring they are set to the correct pressure, and maintaining water sanitation in the barn helps to minimize water spillage.  Additionally, ensuring the water lines are at the right height such that the turkeys are not stretching or bending down to drink decreases the amount of water being wasted during drinking and contributes to keeping the litter dry. BIRD HEALTHBird health plays a very important role in the development of foot pad dermatitis.  Disease challenges, such as coccidiosis and enteritis, are associated with malabsorption in the gut, leading to loose excreta and increased litter moisture.  Watery, foamy droppings are often the first indication of a disease challenge. Enteric diseases lead to a decrease in feed and water intake, which results in marginal intake of nutrients critical to health, including energy, amino acids, vitamins and trace minerals. Unless quickly addressed, litter conditions will deteriorate and birds will develop dirty feathering and lethargy.  The combination of these factors results in impaired immune response, increasing the turkey’s susceptibility to foot pad dermatitis. Closely monitoring flock health and mortality for the duration of the growing period is very important and should be done in consultation with your flock veterinarian. NUTRITIONComponents of the ingredients provided in the feed can contribute to foot pad dermatitis.  Ingredients containing difficult to digest carbohydrates, such as soybean meal, corn distillers grains with solubles, barley and wheat, are associated with sticky droppings due to their ability to retain water in the excreta.  These sticky droppings are concerning as they increase the contact time of the foot pad with the excreta, as well as increasing the water contained in the excreta.  This challenge can be overcome with enzyme supplementation in the diet.  Another nutritional component is the quality and balance of protein being supplied in the diet.  A diet that is poorly balanced in terms of protein leads to increased excretion of water into the litter, contributing to an increase in litter moisture.  The presence of mycotoxins in the feed can also contribute to the development of foot pad dermatitis. The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), has been shown to disrupt the intestinal mucosa structure, leading to impaired nutrient absorption and contributing to the development of malabsorption and increased excreta moisture. The risk from mycotoxins can be mitigated by stringent screening of feedstuffs and nutritional support to minimize their negative effects. Another dietary factor is sodium intake from both feed and water as it impacts electrolyte balance. Sodium intake in excess of nutritional requirements can contribute to the development of foot pad dermatitis through increased excreta moisture. Maintaining moderate, but adequate, levels of sodium in the diet, with adjustment for the contribution from drinking water, is a necessary step in foot pad dermatitis prevention.  Proper nutrition and feed formulation can address many of the factors involved with foot pad health in turkeys. Developing a nutritional strategy to prevent the development of foot pad dermatitis in your flock should be done in consultation with your flock nutritionist. CONCLUSIONThe effect of litter material, ventilation and humidity, water line management, bird health, and nutrition on foot pad dermatitis needs to be well understood by producers to minimize the risk of this disease developing within their flock of turkeys.  Understanding how these factors work both independently, as well as the way they interact, to induce and increase severity of foot pad dermatitis in a turkey flock gives producers the opportunity to manage their barns to reduce the risk factors present to the turkeys, from day-old poults through to market age.  Barn and flock management that focuses on the reduction of foot pad dermatitis risk factors, particularly by monitoring litter moisture, will contribute significantly to producing a high performing, healthy flock of turkeys.      

Profiles

(LtoR) John Penner,  EFC Chief Executive Officer Tim Lambert, Kurt Siemens, EFC Chairman Peter Clarke, and Marcel Laviolette were some of the farmers present at EFC Downtown diner. Social Responsibility

  Geneve Newcombe and her husband Craig, egg farmers in Port Williams, Nova Scotia, feel strongly about teaching their children about the value of giving back to the community. So when Geneve heard that Egg Farmers of Canada was a sponsor of the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation CIBC Run for the Cure, she didn’t hesitate: she and her three children, all in their late teens and early 20s, signed up to take part in the run in Halifax. The family has done the run twice now — happy to do something for others, and pleased that Egg Farmers of Canada is a sponsor of the event. Social responsibility comes naturally to egg farmers. Right from the beginning, EFC has always strived to incorporate social responsibility into all aspects of its organization. Tradition of Agriculture“I believe that social responsibility is rooted in our traditions as an agricultural industry,” says Peter Clarke, chairman of Egg Farmers of Canada. “When egg farmers came together in the 1970s to develop a self-regulating supply management system, they were demonstrating a willingness to work together for the common good of consumers and farmers. They also understood there was a need to earn the trust of their stakeholders by operating in a socially responsible manner. Research has confirmed this. Through donations, fundraising, sponsorship, volunteering and taking part in events, nine out of ten farmers are giving back. Across the country, they are strong contributors to their communities. Deep Roots“Because most egg farms in Canada are family-owned and have often been operating through several generations, our farmers are deeply rooted in and committed to giving back to their communities,” adds Peter Clarke. Egg boards are also strong community supporters. Egg boards and EFC contribute more than $1 million a year to causes through donations, fundraising and sponsorship of community events and organizations. Collectively, they support close to 200 community programs, causes, charities and events. EFC has been collaborating with Food Banks Canada for more than two decades, and over the years it has donated millions of eggs to the organization — more than one million last year alone. At one of its recent events in Ottawa, Egg Farmers of Canada hosted a successful Downtown Diner near Parliament Hill. EFC served egg sandwiches created by Marc Doiron, a chef and owner of the local restaurant Town, to parliamentarians, their staff and the public; in return, the organization encouraged donations to Food Banks Canada and added their own donation. As a result EFC was able to present Food Banks Canada with a $10,000 cheque. Earlier this year, Egg Farmers of Canada announced a new partnership with Breakfast Club of Canada, an organization that gives children access to a nourishing breakfast. Supply ManagementGeneve Newcombe says the system of supply management is part of the underpinning of egg farmers’ commitment to their community. By giving egg farmers an income they can count on, the system brings stability to the industry and enables farmers to think about more than just the future of their farm. “Stability helps keep you anchored in the community,” she says. And being anchored in the community makes it easier to give back.    

Research

Vancouver-based Enterra Corporation is looking to produce animal feed from larvae of the black soldier fly Feeding What Comes Naturally

Insects as a sustainable human food source have received a good deal of attention and investment over the last several years.   Less visible are efforts here and abroad to use insects as a sustainable animal feed source. One such initiative is taking place in a commercial sized facility in Vancouver. Vancouver-based Enterra Feed Corporation is not only unique to Canada; it is attempting to resolve two problems with a single solution by using food waste to create feed protein derived from insects.  They describe it as up-cycling. By using a food source that is naturally eaten by poultry, Enterra is tackling two major, global problems – wasted food and a growing demand for affordable protein sources. According to recent reports, more than 30 per cent of the world’s food supply never makes it to the consumer and ends up as disposed waste or compost.  In Canada, over 50 per cent of food waste occurs at the consumer level but 29 per cent occurs at the processing and retail levels amounting to about $7.8 billion a year. The sharp increase in pre-consumer food waste over the last 50 years is due in large part to increasing consumption of perishable fruits and vegetables and stricter food quality requirements. This is happening at the same time as fish stocks and crop lands are shrinking and as demand for soy and other plant proteins is growing, creating volatile feed supplies and prices for poultry farmers. The farm and food sector is continuously seeking ways to make their practices more environmentally and economically sustainable.  This is where insect-feed fits in. According to the company website, Enterra’s  patent-pending hatchery process uses a local beneficial insect to recover nutrients from traceable feedstock.  “We operate an organic, zero-waste system to provide a sustainable supply of high quality nutrients for food production at a stable price, and that also reduces food waste disposal costs for businesses and municipalities.” This is the way it works. Enterra takes fruit and vegetable waste from grocers and food processors — including Overwaitea Food Group and Sun Processing — combines it with a small amount of fish trim and waste bread and feeds it to the larvae of the black soldier fly. This common and benign fly is used because it is not a vector for disease and because the female flies are prolific- producing up to 900 larvae eggs during their seven day lifespan. Known for their voracious appetite, the larvae consume each feeding in just a few hours, so the waste food never has time to decompose and breed pathogens.   The largely automated,  enclosed hatching facility can take in 100 tonnes of pre-consumer food waste per day or 36,500 tonnes per year. This produces approximately 5,400 tonnes of larvae, 2,700 tonnes of fertilizer and can recover nearly 20,000 tonnes per year of clean water from the fruit and vegetable feedstock. After two weeks when they are at their prime, the larvae are cleaned, cooked, dried and ground into meal. The meal is about 60 per cent protein, comparable to soy feed, and, according to the company, suitable for both fish or poultry feed. The larvae castings and spent brood flies are being used as fertilizer by local farmers. The company calls it “Renewable Food for Animals and Plants™”. Breeding trials conducted by the EU initiative PROteINSECT have found that one hectare of land could produce at least 150 tons of insect protein per year. By comparison, soy planted over the same area yielded just under a ton of protein and is more resource intensive to grow.  And a 2013 report by the   Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN  suggests that feeding trials with fish and poultry showed that the animals fed insect-feed outperformed those raised on traditional diets. TRIAL PHASEIn September, Enterra announced that it had received additional investor funding to help complete its 56,000-square-foot commercial pilot facility in Langley B.C., expand production and begin selling feed on a commercial scale. This makes Enterra the only large scale commercial producer in Canada although there are many in the research, pilot and start-up stages here in Canada and globally. Company CEO Brad Marchant says “we have been testing our products with poultry for about two years now — both in Canada and the U.S.  The most recent field testing is being conducted at the University of Saskatchewan as well as an organic poultry farm in Oregon, with very encouraging results and positive response from the farm operators.” As the company prepares to ramp up commercial production, it has filed for Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) approval to sell its feed products in Canada and is awaiting organic certification for its fertilizer product in Canada.  Marchant reports that Enterra has “been working with CFIA for about two and half years now, to register the product as a novel feed ingredient for poultry and aquaculture.” Adding, “We understand that this is a normal timeline for approval of a novel feed ingredient.” CURRENT AVAILABILITYCurrently, the products are being sold in Washington, Oregon and Idaho where the firm has received product approvals. The company is awaiting approval in several other U.S. states.  At the same time, Enterra is working on FDA registration so they can sell to all of the U.S. market rather than just certain states. When it comes to price, Marchant says it is price competitive with common protein sources such as soy and fish meals. “Based on the nutritional content and digestibility we are priced between premium fish meal and poultry meal.  In some cases, where the advantages of local, consistent supply of a natural protein product are desired, there is a premium paid.” The company is receiving inquiries from poultry producers and Marchant says, “there seems to be pent up demand for the product as insect larvae are a natural feed source for poultry, and our larvae are grown from traceable feedstock sources. It is really more a case of regulations catching up with product demand.” If all goes according to plan the company may open hatcheries in Toronto, Seattle or San Francisco.   Although 1/3 of the world’s population eats insects as a regular food source it will be a challenge to get North Americans to adopt an insect diet.   The next best thing is to use those insects to feed animals we will readily eat. And that poultry will too.